Indonesia is by far the largest producer of cloves, cultivated on 1.4 million acres. Other producers include Madagascar, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka.  Cloves are widely used because of their culinary and medicinal qualities. Unfortunately they are threatened by climate change. For example in Indonesia, the dry season is shortened by early and excessive rains, which means the cloves or clove tree flowers do not develop. In 2020, hot and wet conditions drastically reduced the yield of clove trees. Droughts and heat waves, which have become more frequent in recent years, can reduce the clove crop by up to 70%.  In Madagascar, increasing cyclone activity is taking a toll on clove production there. 
 “Global Clove Market | 2022 - 27 | Industry Share, Size, Growth - Mordor Intelligence,” accessed September 19, 2022, https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/global-clove-market.
 “Clove Farmers in Indonesia’s ‘Spice Islands’ Face Increasing Uncertainty in a Changing Climate,” Earth Journalism Network, May 27, 2020, https://earthjournalism.net/stories/clove-farmers-in-indonesias-spice-islands-face-increasing-uncertainty-in-a-changing-climate.
 “Adaptation-Insight-Madagascar-Adapting-to-Cyclones.Pdf,” accessed September 19, 2022, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08b0bed915d3cfd000ace/Adaptation-Insight-Madagascar-Adapting-to-cyclones.pdf.
Yields of major staple crops like wheat and rice are being hurt by increasing temperatures. Wine grape production is moving to cooler climes causing changes in the character of some of our favorites. The flavors and health benefits of teas, the size of potatoes, the sting of a hot pepper, where fish call home in the oceans, and a future decline in protein in vegetables—it’s all changing.
Our food database shows the ingredients affected by a changing climate.
To learn what farmers, scientists, and many others are doing to keep the menu stocked, see Stewardship of the Land and Our Changing Menu: Climate Change and the Foods We Love and Need. You have a role, too!
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This food ingredient database is in its early phase and we will strive to expand it on an ongoing basis so that everyone is aware of how climate change is affecting the foods we love and need.